题目：Trade Costs beyond Iceberg and Quality Choices: Evidence and Implications
摘要：Trade theories usually think of trade costs as iceberg costs, as if goods partially disappear during trade. In reality, a sizable part of trade costs is not iceberg but specific, meaning that they are additive and per-unit. However, these specific costs are difficult to measure and quantify. In this paper, I argue that the specific costs can be inferred from the observed quality variations of trade since higher specific costs make it relatively cheaper to ship higher-quality goods. I develop a model in which a firm chooses product quality as a lever to balance production costs and specific trade costs for each market. The model features a within-firm "Alchian-Allen" effect causing a firm to raise quality and price as specific costs increase, and a selection effect allowing firms with high quality and price to export when the export hurdle is high. Conditional on the selection effect, higher average prices imply higher specific costs. Specific trade costs and other trade costs can thus be inferred using microlevel trade data. I infer massive declines in specific trade costs of Chinese textile and clothing exports due to the Multi Fibre Arrangement quota removal. The analysis indicates inefficient quota allocation across Chinese firms, especially for the nonstate sector.